Wednesday, August 15, 2012

International Journal of Business Anthropology Volume 3(2)

Volume 3(2)
International Journal of
Business Anthropology
Table of Contents

Special Issue on Travelling of Management Ideas

Editorial Commentary: Introduction to Special Issue on Travelling of Management Ideas
Kees BoersmaHenk van den Heuveland Alfons van Marrewijk

The Purposes and Practices of Quality Assurance in Ethiopian Higher Education: Journey, Adaptation and Integration
Kate Ashcroft and Philip Rayner

The Community-Engaged University: the Case of Universities in Ethiopia
Peter van der Sijde, Marissa Popma, Jimma University

Autonomous Institutions? Local Ownership in Higher Education in Eastern Indonesia
Juliette Koning and Egide Maassen

Less (in Context) is More (Creativity): M-learning as a Short Lived Traveling Idea at the University of Pretoria

Anna Bon, Tom De Schryver, Hossana Twinomurinzi, and Hossana Twinomurinzi

Traveling Ideas: Equality and Power Play around “Diversity” at North West University (NWU), South Africa
Frans Kamsteeg and Harry Wels

Discussion Papers

Applied Anthropology and Business Diversity Management
Hector N. Qirko


Dr. Robert G. Tian
Dr. Daming Zhou
Dr. Alfons H. van Marrewijk

Associate Editors

Dr. Gang Chen
Dr. Hilda Eitzen
Dr. Xiaoliu Yang

Members of Editorial Board

Dr. Allen Batteau, Wayne State University, USA
Dr. William O. Beeman, University of Minnesota, USA
Dr. Gordon Bronitsky, Bronitsky and Associates, USA
Dr. Yu Chen, Sun Yat-Sen University, PRC
Dr. Gang Chen, Yunnan Finance and Economics University, PRC
Dr. Andrew Z. S. Demirdjian, California State University, USA
Dr. Heidi Dahles, VU University Amsterdam, NL
Dr. Lily Díaz, Aalto University, Finland
Dr. Ying Duan, Sun Yat-Sen University, PRC
Dr. Murad Esenov, Institute of Central Asia and Caucasian Studies, SE
Dr. Kreg T. Ettenger, University of Southern Maine, USA
Dr. Julia C. Gluesing, Wayne State University, USA
Dr. Ekaterina L. Khramkova, Moscow University of Industry and Finance, RU
Dr. Mahesh Ranjan Debata, Jawaharlal Nehru University, IN
Panjab University, IND
Dr. Michael Lillis, Medaille College, USA
Dr. Catriona Macaulay, University of Dundee, UK 
Dr. Christine Miller, Savannah College of Art and Design, USA
Dr. Pedro Oliveira, IPAM Marketing School, POR
Dr. Devinder Pal Singh, Punjabi University, IND
Dr. Xiaoguang Qi. University of Cambridge, UK
Dr. Jean N. Scandlyn, University of Colorado Denver, USA
Dr. Josephine Smart, University of Calgary, CA
Dr. Dixon Wong, Hong Kong University, HK
Dr. Alf Walle, Galen University, BZ
Dr. Jianhua Zhao, University of Louisville, USA
Dr. Xudong Zhao, Renmin University, PRC

Members of Advisory Board:

Dr. Marietta L. Baba, University of Michigan, USA
Dr. Robbie Blinkoff, Context-Based Research Group, USA
Dr. Elizabeth Briody, Cultural Keys LLC, USA
Dr. Ken Friedman, Swinburne University of Technology, AUS
Mr. Anthony Galima, Independent Business Consultant, USA
Dr. Jayne Howell, California State University Long Beach, USA
Dr. Ann Jordan, North Texas University, USA
Mr. Aaron Marcus, AExperience Design Intelligence, USA
Dr. Timothy de Waal Malefyt, BBDO Worldwide Advertising, USA
Dr. Robert J. Morais, Weinman Schnee Morais, Inc., USA
Mr. Toby Nord, Senior Lecturer, University of Minnesota, USA
Dr. Pamela Puntenney, Environmental & Human Systems Management, USA
Dr. Elizabeth Tunstall, Swinburne University of Technology, AUS

Sunday, August 12, 2012

Updated CFPs: Anthropological Applications in Management and Marketing (Tentative)

Updated CFPs Anthropological Applications in Management and Marketing Tentative

In order to promote phenomenon-driven study on management and marketing research in the Chinese context, the Business School at Eastern China University of Science and Technology will host The International Conference on Anthropological Applications in Management and Marketing to be held between May 18-20, 2013 in Shanghai.  The conference will be co-sponsored by the College of Sociology and Anthropology at Sun Yat-Sen University, The Institute of Anthropology at Renmin University, School of Business at STU, and the North America Business Press (more co-sponsors will be added).  

The conference would like to accept papers from scholars all over the world, who are interested in the anthropological study of business theories and practices. Please submit your paper proposals to the conference by email:, the deadline is the end of Dec. 2012. 

The Conference Committee has invited the following well-known or established scholars in the fields of management, marketing, and business anthropology as the keynote/guest/session speakers:

Dr. Russell Belk, York University (Confirmed)
Dr. Luis Borges, Saint Xavier University (Confirmed)
Dr. Gang Chen, Yunnan University of Finance and Economics (Confirmed)
Dr. Mahesh Ranjan Debata, Nehru University (Confirmed)
Paris Descartes University (Confirmed)
Dr. Fernanda Duarte, University of Western Sydney (Confirmed)
Dr. Stephanie A. Krawinkler, Betriebs (Confirmed)
Dr. Timothy Malefyt, Fordham University (Confirmed)
Managing Director, QualiData Research Inc.
Dr. Maryann, McCabe, Rochester University (Confirmed)
Dr. John McCreery, The Word Works (Confirmed)
Dr. Belete Mebratu, Medaille College (Confirmed)
Dr. Yue Li, Shantou University (Confirmed)
Dr. Alex Stewart, Marquette University (Confirmed)
IPAM Marketing School (Confirmed)
University of Cambridge (Confirmed)
University of Alaska at Fairbanks (Confirmed)
Dr. Daming Zhou, Sun Yat-Sen University (Confirmed)
……. (To be expanded)

The themes/topics of the conference include but are not limited to:

1.                  The anthropological study of contextual management and marketing phenomena and cultural issues in the business environment
2.                  The anthropological study of organizational and strategic behavior
3.                  The anthropological study of consumer behaviorbranding, advertising and marketing communication strategies
4.                  Ethnographic methods and applications in business studies
5.                  The anthropological study of cross-cultural business communications and practices
6.                  The anthropological study of product design and development
7.                  The anthropological study of international business strategies
8.                  The applications of anthropology in business education
9.                  The anthropological study of organizational development and change
10.              The anthropological study of entrepreneurships

The Academic Committee of the Conference consists of the following scholars:

Professor Xi Qiumin, Chair (Confirmed)
Professor Guo Yi, Co-Chair (Confirmed)
Professor Timothy Malefyt, Co-Chair (Confirmed)
Professor Zhou Daming, Co-Chair (Confirmed)

The Organizational Committee of the Conference consists of the following scholars:

Professor Wu Baijun, Chair (Dean, School of Business at ECUST, Confirmed)
Professor GUO Yi, Co-Chair (Confirmed)
Professor Russell Belk, Co-Chair (Confirmed)
Professor Alex Stewart, Co-Chair (Confirmed)
Professor Fernanda Duarte, Co-Chair (Confirmed)
Professor Tian Guang, Co-Chair (General Secretary for the Conference, Confirmed)

Qualified conference papers will be published in the following Cabell Directory listed peer-reviewed journals in addition to the conference proceedings:

International Journal of Business Anthropology
International Journal of China Marketing
Journal of Applied Business and Economics
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice
American Journal of Management

The format of the paper:


Produced in MS-Word 95 or greater (or equivalent), please no pdf.
1 inch margins on all sides
8.5” x 11” paper size, not A4
Single spacing, from beginning of document
One space after all punctuation
Times New Roman, 12 pt. font
Full justification except where noted
Do not page number
Do not use footnotes or endnotes. If necessary, manually number using superscript and list numbered notes after body of paper and before references.
Paragraphs should be continuous, no line spaces between paragraphs, with a 1/4 inch indentation at each new paragraph no landscape oriented pages or color graphs please.

Article title should appear at 2.5 inches (8 hard returns) from top: title should be centered, bold, 14 pt font, Times New Roman. Each author, with affiliation, should be centered below title, with space between first author and title, and each subsequent author/affiliation, 12 pt font, bold, Times New Roman.
After the last author’s affiliation, hard return 4 times and place an abstract of no more than 100 words. Abstract is in italics, 12 pt font, with no indentation.


Scale Measurements in Marketing Research

Michael Johnson

University of Georgia

William Davis
              University of Oregon  (return)

This is where the abstract would start…Do not use the word Abstract…Do not indent

When the abstract is complete, hard return 1 time and start the body of the paper.


First level headings should be bold, all caps, 12 pt Times New Roman, Left Justified with 1 line space above and below the heading.

Second Level Heading
Second level headings should be bold, 12 pt Times New Roman, Left Justified with one space above the heading, none below, using capitals as in a title.

Third Level Heading

Third level headings should be italic, 12 pt Times New Roman, Left Justified with one space above the heading, none below, using capitals as in a title.

TABLES, FIGURES and GRAPHS: They should be numbered consecutively within each category; thus, a paper might have a TABLE 1, FIGURE 1, and GRAPH 1. Each table, figure, and graph should be self contained and centered along with the headings being centered, all capital letters, bold, 12 pt font, and appear in the body of the paper in its appropriate location (See Table 1). Excessive tables, figures, graphs and raw data are discouraged. They should directly aid in the reading of the article. If needed, but cumbersome, they should be included in an appendix. If an Appendix is included, it should appear after the references. Because the journal is printed in black and white, please do not use color in illustrations.





Every reference in an article should provide specific information in the order specified by the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA): The acceptable citation style is (Alan, 1981) coming at the final point of the paraphrased citation, or (Davis,, 1999, p.116) coming after a quote.

The author's: last name, first initial, middle initial_(year of publication in parentheses)._title of article._ name of publication – italics,_volume number,_both beginning and ending pages of the article. Left Justify all lines of referencing, with double space between references. Two journal and one book examples below.

Alan, B.P. (1981). Management Directed Buyouts. Journal of Management, 27, (3), 23-34.

Davis, M.R., Jones, L.K. & English, C.P. (1999). Directing LBO’s in Aviation Firms. Journal of Strategic Policy, 41, Fall, 113-127.

Johnson, B. (1993). Principles of Banking, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Following the REFERENCE section, please include your name, address and phone number of where your complimentary journal copies should be mailed. If this information is not included, the delivery of your journals could be delayed.

COPYRIGHT ASSIGNMENT and PERMISSIONS: By accepting publication into the journals listed above, it implies that the Journals have copyright assignment from the authors, and the accepted articles have not appeared or been accepted for publication elsewhere.


Wednesday, August 8, 2012

What Anthropology Brings to Business: A Foreword for the Textbook General Business Anthropology (2nd edition) Alex Stewart, Marquette University

What Anthropology Brings to Business

A Foreword for the Textbook General Business Anthropology (2nd edition)

Alex Stewart, Marquette University

            Anthropology has a great deal to offer for business researchers, whether their research is applied and commercial or “pure” and foundational.  Here are seven major advantages of an anthropological approach: patient participant observation, insider vistas, methodological versatility, relevant expertise, cross-cultural alertness, a bias for the underdog, and respectful collaboration.
            1. Patient participant observation. Applied anthropologists face stricter deadlines than do their disciplinary colleagues (Aguilera, 1996).  However, all anthropologists try to make long-term commitments to stick with it and learn a social and cultural setting in depth (Hamada Connolly, 2011; Tian, 2011).  Their patience contrasts with most “qualitative” research in business schools, which pays more attention to supposedly theoretical elaborations than it does to data quality or to the basis of that quality in fieldwork duration, participant roles, and attention to context (Stewart, 1998).
            2. Insider vistas. The reward for the anthropologist’s stints of immersion is access to insiders’ vistas: to actions, interactions, and expressions that typically are hidden from view (van Marrewijk, 2011).  Impression management is a task of all organizations; organization scholars can be among the duped.  Other levels and other units of the same organization may fail to see past facades (Kondo, 1990; Sayles, 1993; Weeks, 2004).  For those business leaders who truly want to know what goes on in their terrains, anthropologists have the tools for the task (Jordan, 2011).
            3. Methodological versatility. In fact they have many such tools, evidenced in Bernard’s (2011) Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches.  Even ethnography - the default tool - is far from standardized and comes in many configurations.  Perhaps it is better thought of as a toolbox that holds many methods.  Ethnography varies in the way that data are (so-called) collected: not just participant observation but also oral histories, life stories, and interviews designed to elicit the informant’s cultural world with minimal reactivity (Spradley, 1979).  Modes of data collection (and presentation) also include visual methods such as photoethnography and ethnographic film (for a classic example, Bateson & Mead, 1942).  Analysis of these data can incorporate mathematical techniques such as network analysis, with successful studies using highly sophisticated (White & Johansen, 2006) and homespun approaches (Kapferer, 1972).
            Ethnography varies also in the scope of its purview, ranging from studies of global impacts on localities (Meisch, 2002), through clusters of firms in an industry (Yanagisako, 2002), to individual people - including the self as the informant (that is, autoethnography, McClendon, 2011).  Even the types of subjects observed may vary, and include not only people (of course) but also material culture in visual culture research (Curasi, Price, & Arnould, 2004; van Marrewijk, 2011).  Moreover, anthropologists can take as their data the prior ethnographic record, seeking qualitative or quantitative syntheses of its findings.  Within anthropology, the best known such approach is hypothesis testing using the dataset of the Human Relations Area Files (Ember & Ember, 2009), although this approach remains underutilized in business research.  An alternative approach that seeks the best of both qualitative and quantitative synthesis is Ragin’s Qualitative Comparative Analysis or QCA (Ragin, 2008).  An example of the use of QCA in business is Rosigno and Hodson’s (2004) study of worker resistance to management.
            4. Relevant expertise.  As the Rosigno and Hodson study illustrates, ethnographies have explored topics of immediate interest to business.  Moreover, anthropologists have developed expertise in fundamental concerns such as “culture” (Batteau, 2011), with a depth well beyond that of “folk ethnography” (that is, the views of practicing managers; Weeks, 2004; van Marrewijk, 2011).  Kinship studies is another example of expertise that is relevant to the majority of businesses world-wide, as these are in some sense “family firms” (Gao, 2011; Stewart, 2010).  Perusing just the table of contents of recent introductions to the discipline will uncover many other topics of relevance to business.  A few examples: “contested norms and social control... property and tenure” (Hendry, 2008); and “rebels and innovators”, and “the changing nature of consumption” (Rosman, Rubel, & Weisgrau, 2009).
            5. Cross-cultural alertness.  The relevance of anthropological concerns can be missed if we attend only to the apparent (and real) exoticism of its specific subject matter.  For example, the Rosman et al. text contains a randomly picked photograph with the caption “Hijras in India are born male but live as women, enacting social and religious rituals...” (p. 148).  Yet this apparent exoticism is an anthropological strength.  Business anthropologists remind us that, in our globalizing world, cross-cultural alertness ought to be valued; ethnocentrism ought not (Jordan, 2011; Tian, Zhou & van Marrewijk, 2011). 
The discipline has treated any and all human experience as equally worthy of our understanding.
            6. Bias for the underdog. Related to its regard for lesser known cultures is a bias in favor of support for the less well off and powerful.  Certainly, anthropologists have studied formal, “modern” organizations, such as banks (Rohlen, 1974; Weeks, 2004).  However, most anthropological studies of commerce have focused on small scale entrepreneurs (Stewart, 1991).  As an illustration of concern for the underdog, protection of the intellectual property of indigenous peoples can be and has been a business anthropologist’s mission (Walle, 2011).  This bias might seem to be a detriment for a business anthropology, but I will argue the opposite.  Anthropologists have the tools to study the same organizations as other students of business.  Even here, their attention to the less obvious corners of organizational life can reveal what managers miss.  However, they also have the tools, and a comparative advantage, in the study of the great majority of the globe’s businesses and entrepreneurs.  As such, they are uniquely positioned to contribute to the economic advance of what Prahalad in his recent (2010) book has called “the bottom of the pyramid”.
            7. Respectful collaboration. Examples of studies of female, small scale and micro entrepreneurs are the books by Behar (1993) and Simon (2003).  I adduce these as examples to illustrate another well honed skill in anthropology: the collaboration between researcher and researched in the creation of the text.  Both books report with relatively little filtering the words and life stories of the protagonists.  Business anthropologists, like all ethnographers, face challenges in reporting for the wider scientific community while also respecting confidences of particular individuals who, despite the use of pseudonyms, may be identified by others in their circles (Weeks, 2004, p. 29).  One of the solutions is what Van Maanen (2011, pp. 136-138) terms the “jointly told tale” in which scholars and practitioners collaborate in the write-up.
            This approach has been advocated for business anthropology (Aguilera, 1996), although - like the use of multiple ethnographies as data - it offers much room for further exploration.  “Room for further exploration”: this expression serves as my summary statement for business anthropologists.  Clearly they face exciting possibilities, when they combine a love for the scholarly world with an entrepreneurial willingness to craft their own careers.  Doing so may seem a daunting prospect, but this is the prospect for everyone now: there are few if any settled, secure “job ladders” to be climbed (as Lane, 2011, reports in a tale jointly told with high tech job seekers).  Therefore, those who have read this far are fortunate to have this book as a resource, that can help you explore how you, in your own fashion, can combine both worlds of business and anthropology.

Aguilera, F. E. (1996). Is anthropology good for the company? American Anthropologist, 98, 735-742.

Batteau, A. W. (2011). Creating a culture of enterprise cybersecurity. In R. G. Tian, D. Zhou, & A. van Marrewijk (Eds.), Advanced readings in business anthropology (pp. 109-119). Toronto: North American Business Press.

Bateson, G., and Mead, M. (1942). Balinese character: A photographic analysis. New York: New York Academy of Sciences.

Behar, R. (2003). Translated woman: Crossing the border with Esperanza. Boston: Beacon.

Bernard, H. R. (2011). Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 5th Ed. Lanham, MD: AltaMira.

Curasi, C. F., Price, L. L., & Arnould, E. J. (2004). Ritual desire and ritual development: An examination of family heirlooms in contemporary North American households. In C. C. Otnes & T. M. Lowrey (Eds.), Contemporary consumption rituals: A research anthology (pp. 237-265). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Ember, C. R., & Ember, M. (2009). Cross-cultural research methods, 2nd Ed. Lanham, MD: AltaMira.

Gao, C. (2011). The economic implications of kinship: Small entrepreneurs in Guangzhou garment industry. International Journal of Business Anthropology, 2, 91-101.

Hamada Connolly, T. (2011). Business ritual studies: Corporate ceremony and sacred space. In R. G. Tian, D. Zhou, & A. van Marrewijk (Eds.), Advanced readings in business anthropology (pp. 120-133). Toronto: North American Business Press.

Hendry, J. (2008). An introduction to social anthropology: Sharing our worlds, 2nd Ed.. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Jordan, A. T. (2011). The importance of business anthropology: Its unique contribution. In R. G. Tian, D. Zhou, & A. van Marrewijk (Eds.), Advanced readings in business anthropology (pp. 19-27). Toronto: North American Business Press.

Kapferer, B. (1972). Strategy and transaction in an African factory: African workers and Indian management in a Zambian town. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Kondo, D. K. (1990). Crafting selves: Power, gender, and discourses of identity in a Japanese workplace. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lane, C. A. (2011). A company of one: Insecurity, independence, and the new world of white-collar unemployment. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

McClendon, D. E. Sr. (2010). The role of anthropology in retailing: An autoethnographic case study. In R. G. Tian, D. Zhou, & A. van Marrewijk (Eds.), Advanced readings in business anthropology (pp. 206-212). Toronto: North American Business Press.

Meisch, L. A. (2002). Andean entrepreneurs: Otavalo merchants and musicians in the global arena. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Prahalad, C. K. (2010). The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid: Eradicating poverty through profits, Rev. Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Ragin, C. C. (2008). Redesigning social inquiry: Fuzzy sets and beyond. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Rohlen, T. P. (1974). For harmony and strength: Japanese white-collar organization in anthropological perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Roscigno, V. J., & Hodson. R. (2004). The organizational and social foundations of worker resistance. American Sociological Review, 69, 14-39.

Rosman, A., Rubel, P. G., & Weisgrau, M. (2009). The tapestry of culture: An introduction to cultural anthropology, 9th Ed. Lanham, MD: AltaMira.

Sayles, L. R. (1993). The working leader. New York: Free Press.

Simon, S. (2003). Sweet and sour: Life-worlds of Taipei women entrepreneurs. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Spradley, J. P. (1979). The ethnographic interview. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Stewart. Alex. 1991. A prospectus on the anthropology of entrepreneurship.  Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(2), 71-91.

Stewart, A. (1998). The ethnographer’s method. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Stewart, A. (2010). Sources of entrepreneurial discretion in kinship systems. Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth, 12, 291-313.

Tian, R. G. (2011). The unique contributions and the unique methodologies: A concise overview of the applications of business anthropology. In R. G. Tian, D. Zhou, & A. van Marrewijk (Eds.), Advanced readings in business anthropology (pp. 28-42). Toronto: North American Business Press.

Tian, R. G., Zhou, D., & van Marrewijk, A. (2011). Introduction: Business anthropology is dynamic and growing. In R. G. Tian, D. Zhou, & A. van Marrewijk (Eds.), Advanced readings in business anthropology (pp. 12-17). Toronto: North American Business Press.

Van Maanen, J. (2011). Tales of the field: On writing ethnography, 2nd Ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

van Marrewijk, A. (2011). European developments in business anthropology. In R. G. Tian, D. Zhou, & A. van Marrewijk (Eds.), Advanced readings in business anthropology (pp. 43-56). Toronto: North American Business Press.

Walle, A. H. (2011). Facilitating intellectual property rights: A role for business anthropologists. In R. G. Tian, D. Zhou, & A. van Marrewijk (Eds.), Advanced readings in business anthropology (pp. 183-198). Toronto: North American Business Press.

Weeks, J. (2004). Unpopular culture: The ritual of complaint in a British bank. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

White, D. R., & Johansen, U. C. (2006). Network analysis and ethnographic problems: Process models of a Turkish nomadic clan. New York: Lexington.

Yanagisako, S. J. (2002). Producing culture and capital: Family firms in Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Poster’s Note: The textbook General Business Anthropology is authored by Robert Guang Tian, Michael Lillis, Alfons van Marrewijk, which is published by the North America Business Press in 2010 (1st edition), and the 2nd edition will be published in 2013.